Research Methods and Process (Bullet Points)


  1. Marketing Research 
    1. Rational 
    2. Definitions 
    3. Basic and Applied research
    4. characteristics of Marketing research 
    5. Objectives of Marketing research 
    6. Function of Marketing research 
    7. Scope of Marketing research 
    8. Errors in Marketing Research 
      1. Errors due to poorly defined goals and proccedures 
      2. Errors in conducting surveys and studies for research
      3. Errors in processing due to use of wrong tools 
    9. Research Methodology : Meaning and Procedural guidelines 
      1. The statement of Research objectives and research problem 
      2. Preparation of a list of required information 
      3. Preparation of research design 
      4. Selection of sample type 
      5. Determination of the sample size 
      6. Data collection and processing 
      7. Analysis and interpretation 
      8. Presentation and follow through 
      9. Implementation of results 
      10. Persons/Firms in the research process 
        1. Decision Maker
        2. Researcher 
        3. Targeted respondent  
      11. Types of research
        1. Exploratory Research
          1. Design of Exploratory studies 
            1. Study of Secondary Data
            2. Survey of Individuals 
            3. Analysis of selected cases 
          2. Conclusion research
            1. Descriptive Research
              1. Design in descriptive research
                1. The Case study method 
                2. Statistical Methods 
              2. Experiment
                1. Experimental Deesign 
                  1. After only Design 
                  2. Before after Design
                  3. Before after with control group design 
                  4. Four group six study design 
                  5. After only with control group design 
                  6. Ex post facto design
                  7. Continuous diary panel design 
                  8. Factorial design
                  9. Latin Square design 
  2. Nature And Sources of  Data
    1. Types of Data
      1. Primary Data
        1. Objectives of collection of primary data
        2. Sources of primary data
      2. Secondary Data
        1. Objectives of collection of Secondary Data
        2. Types of Secondary Data
          1. Internal Data
          2. External Data
          3. Sources of Secondary Dat
  3. Techniques of Data Collection
    1. Techniques of Data Collection 
      1. Factors for selecting a Data collection methods
      2. Techniques for collection of secondary data
      3. Techniques for collection of primary data
        1. field techniques for collection of primary data
          1. Natures of field techniques 
          2. Field techniques for collecting primary data
            1. Door to door interviews
            2. Group interviews
            3. Mall intercept interviews 
            4. Conference interviews 
          3. Observation
            1. Natural direct unobtrusive observation
            2. Contrived observaion
            3. Mechanical ovservation
            4. Indirect observation
          4. Questionnaire
            1. Structured non-disguised questionnaire
            2. Non-structured non-disguised questionnaire
            3. Non-structured, disguised questionnaire
            4. Structured,disguised questionnaire
  4. Frequency distribution
    1. Tenets of frequency distribution
      1. Mutually exclusive  and overlapping classes
    2. Construction of a frequency distribution table
      1. Class limits and class marks
  5. Measures of Central Tendency and Variation 
    1. Mean
      1. Arithmetic mean or average
        1. Calculating arithmetic mean from grouped data
      2. Geometric mean 
      3. Harmonic mean
    2. Median
      1. Calculation of  median from ungrouped data
      2. Calculation of median from grouped data 
    3. Mode
    4. Relationship between Mean,Median and mode
    5. Variation or dispersion
      1. Measures of variation or dispersion
        1. Range
          1. Merits and demerits of range
        2. Inter-quartile range and quartile deviation
          1. Merits and demerits of quartile deviation (QD)
        3. Mean deviation
          1. Merits and  demerits of mean devition
        4. Standard deviation
          1. Co-efficient of variation 
            1. Use of co-efficient of variation
      2. Relationship among various measures of dispersion 
      3. applications 
    6. Measures of skewness and kurtosis 
    7. Measures of Correlation 
      1. Measure of correlation and regression
        1. Karl pearson"s  co-efficient of correaltion
          1. Merits and demerits of karl pearson"s co-efficient
        2. Co-efficient of correlation by rank differences
        3. Two-way frequency Table
        4. Scatter diagram 
      2. Measurement of regression
        1. Regression lines and the co-efficient of correlation
    8. Sampling and Statistical Testing 
      1. Reasons for sampling
      2. Theoretical basis for sampling
      3. Basic concept of sampling
        1. Statistics ,parameters,and  population
        2. Requisite features of sampling
      4. Methods of sampling
        1. Random or probability sampling
          1. Unrestricted random sampling
            1. Lottery method
            2. Tables of random numbers
            3. Restricted random sampling
              1. Stratified sampling
              2. Systematic sampling
              3. Multistage sampling
          2. Non-random or judgement sampling
            1. judgement sampling(Purposive sampling)
            2. Convenience sampling
            3. quota sampling 
      5. Central limit theorem 
    9. Statistical Testing  Research 
      1. Testing the hypothesis: general procedure
        1. The null hypothesis
        2. Alternative hypothesis
        3. Significance level
      2. Two-tailed and one-tailed tests of hypothesis
        1. Hypothesis testing of  means:samples with population standard deviation
          1. Two-tailed tests of means
          2. One- tailed test of means  
        2. Hypothesis testing of proportions 
          1. Two-tailed test of proporions
          2. One-tailed test of proportions
        3. Hypothesis testing for differences between two population parameters
        4. Hypothesis testing for difference between means
        5. Hypothesis tests for difference between proportions
      3. T-Distribution 
      4. Chi-square test
        1. Calculating degrees of freedom 
        2. Using the chi square test 
    10. Mass communication Research
      1. Definition 
      2. The Paradigm of Mass Communication research
      3. The relationship of theory with mass communication research
      4. Critique of mass communication research
      5. Communication research : A historical overview (Global development)
      6. Types of Mass Communication research
        1. Studies to determine influences of content 
          1. History 
          2. Gatekeeping 
          3. Social Influences 
          4. Relationship between reporters and sources 
          5. Cultural studies in the united states 
          6. Media Violence 
          7. Knowledge gape 
          8. News gathering 
          9. Types of influences of content 
          10. Influences of content : The Indian case
        2. Mass Media Effect research 
          1. How communication has an effect 
          2. What are Mass Media Effects studies 
          3. Models of Media Effects 
            1. Hypodermic Needle Model 
            2. The Limited effects model 
          4. A brief history of Media effects studies 
          5. Types of Media effects 
            1. Direct effects of the Mass Media 
            2. Political Effects of the Mass Media 
              1. Violence 
              2. Sexual Content 
                1. Consequences of pornographic viewing 
                2. The meese commision report
            3. Horror
            4. Disaster themes 
            5. Love and Romance
            6. News and Views 
          6. Strengths of Mass Media Effects Research 
          7. Limitation of Mass Media Effects Research 
        3. Uses and gratifications research
      7.  Communication in India
        1. Landmark studies related to the sitePractical problems
          1. Analysis by connoisseurs 
        2. Post site scenario
        3. Efforts of and results delivered by the iimc
          1. Projects undertaken by the iimc 
        4. Communication research in India:trends of the past
          1. Priority areas defined during the eighties  
        5. Media effects in India :latest trends
          1. Demographic impact of the media
            1. Age group
            2. Gender 
            3. Family size
            4. Family life cycle
            5. Income
            6. Occupation
            7. Education
            8. Race
            9. Nationality
          2. Sociological impact of the media
          3. Economic effects of the media
      8. Marketing research and its relationship with communication ,especially with advertising 
        1. Marketing research 
          1. Product research
            1. Define a product strategy
            2. Get new product ideas 
            3. Develop preliminary procedures to sift good ideas
            4. Develop final procedures to sift best ideas
            5. Develop product specifications
              1. Techniques of data collection
              2. Self reporting models
              3. Conjoint analysis 
            6. Product testing
              1. Paired comparison Test
                1. Staggered comparison tests
                2. Disguised comparison Method
            7. Test marketing
              1. Pretest marketing research 
              2. Full-fledged test marketing 
                1. Other variables to be measured 
                2. Selection is test markets 
                3. Projecting the results  
          2. Consumer research
            1. Scope of consumer research
            2. The need for consumer research in the modern era
            3. Functions of consumer research
              1. Locates customers
              2. Locates people with purchasing power
              3. Locates people who need products and services  of the firm
              4. Determines buying motives of consumers (motivation research)
                1. Nature of motivation research
                2. Study of buying motives of customers   
              5. Studies other motivation variables
                1. Attitudes 
                2. Beliefs
                3. Habits
                4. Customs
              6. Studies consumer behaviour
          3. Market research
          4. Analysis of competitors
        2. Advertising research
          1. Rational for using advertising research
          2. Advantage of advertising research
          3. Disadvantage of advertising research
          4. Types of advertising research
            1. Steategic  advertising research 
              1. Target audience research
              2. Message research
                1. Concept testing
                2. Copy- testing
                  1. Criteria used in copy testing
                    1. Recognition
                    2. Recall
                    3. Persuation
                    4. Purchase behaviour
                  2. Latest information on copy testing
              3. Media research
            2. Evaluative advertising research
              1. Message post-testing Before-after testing
        3. Market research 
        4. Analysis of competitors
      9. Persuasive effects of the media
        1. Intentional persuasion of the media
        2. Principles of media persuasion
        3. News 
        4. Agenda setting theory
        5. The Indian scenario
      10. Content analysis
        1. Desirables prerequisites of content analysis
        2. Applications of content analysis
        3. The procedure of content analysis
          1. Formulate a research question or hypothesis
          2. Define the universe
          3. Select a sample
          4. Select a unit of analysis
          5. Create categories of content
            1. How many and what categories to be decided 
          6. Set up quantification system
          7. Train coders 
          8. Code the content
          9. Analyse the data
          10. Interpret the results
        4. Reliability in content analysis
        5. Validity of content analysis
        6. Advantage of content analysis
        7. Limitations of content analysis 

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